Research and Publications

Members of the Compass team have been involved in cutting edge research at internationally renowned institutions, including the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (King’s College London) and University College London. Research is essential in broadening our understanding of autism, ADHD and related conditions, and in developing the most effective evidence based support.

ADHD and Autism Consensus Papers (Open Access)

These consensus papers provide guidelines for professionals working with autism and ADHD.  They are all open access and freely available to everyone.

All Publications


Woodhouse, E., Hollingdale, J., Davies, L. et al. (2024)Identification and support of autistic individuals within the UK Criminal Justice System: a practical approach based upon professional consensus with input from lived experience.  BMC Med 22, 157.

Ruffell, S. G., Gandy, S., Tsang, W., Lopez, R., O’Rourke, N., Akhtar, A., Netzband, N., Hollingdale, J., Perkins, D., & Sarris, J. (2024). Participation in an indigenous Amazonian-led ayahuasca retreat associated with increases in nature relatedness–a pilot study. Drug Science, Policy and Law10.


Ougrin, D., Woodhouse, E., Tucker, G., Ronaldson, A., & Bakolis, I. (2023). The Prevalence of Behavioural Symptoms and Psychiatric Disorders in Hadza Children. Scientific Reports (Nature Portfolio), 13, Article number: 22061.

Tsang, W., Ruffell, S., Netzband, N., Jong, A., Rucker, J., Deeley, Q., Hollingdale, J. (2023). Can ayahuasca reduce inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity? A pilot study. Drug Science, Policy and Law, 9.

Milner, V., Colvert, E., Mandy, W., & Happé, F. (2023). A comparison of self‐report and discrepancy measures of camouflaging: Exploring sex differences in diagnosed autistic versus high autistic trait young adults. Autism Research, 16(3), 580-590.

Bladen, M., Thorpe, N., Ridout, D., Barrie, A., McGibbon, E., Mance, A., Watson, L., & Main, E. (2023). Autism spectrum disorders in boys at a major UK hemophilia center: prevalence and risk factor. Research & Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 7(1), 100013.

Young, S., Abbasian, C., Al-Attar, Z…Hollingdale, J…Woodhouse, E. (2023). Identification and treatment of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder: An expert consensus statement. World Journal of Psychiatry. 13 (3): 84-112.

Allely, C. S., Woodhouse, E., & Mukherjee, R. A. S. (2023). Autism Spectrum Disorder and personality disorders: how do clinicians carry out a differential diagnosis?. Autism: International Journal of Research and Practice.

Tye, C., McEwen, F. S., Liang, H., Woodhouse, E., Underwood, L., Shephard, E., … & Bolton, P. F. (2023). Epilepsy severity mediates association between mutation type and ADHD symptoms in tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsia.


Capp, S. J., Agnew-Blais, J., Lau-Zhu, A., Colvert, E., Tye, C., Aydin, Ü., … & McLoughlin, G. (2022). Is quality of life related to high autistic traits, high ADHD traits and their Interaction? Evidence from a Young-Adult Community-Based twin sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-16.

Ozsivadjian, A., Milner, V., Pickard, H., Hollocks, M. J., Gaigg, S. B., Colvert, E., … & Magiati, I. (2023). Autistic and non-autistic young people’s and caregivers’ perspectives on COVID-19-related schooling changes and their impact on emotional well-being: An opportunity for change?. Autism27(5), 1477-1491.

Capp, S. J., Mason, D., Colvert, E., Agnew-Blais, J., & Happé, F. (2022). COVID-19 and Perceived Changes to Quality of Life, Anxiety, Depression, and Loneliness in Autistic and Other Neurodivergent UK Adults. Autism in Adulthood, 4(3), 233-246.

Aydin, Ü., Capp, S. J., Tye, C., Colvert, E., Lau‐Zhu, A., Rijsdijk, F., … & McLoughlin, G. (2022). Quality of life, functional impairment and continuous performance task event‐related potentials (ERPs) in young adults with ADHD and autism: A twin study. JCPP Advances, 2(3), e12090.

Farbstein, D., Lukito, S., Yorke, I., Wilson, E., Crudgington, H., El-Aalem, O., … Woodhouse, E.,…& Ougrin, D. (2022). Risk and protective factors for self-harm and suicide in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. BMJ Open12(11), e058297.

Hollingdale, J., Woodhouse, E., Young, S., Gudjonsson, G., Charman, T., & Mandy, W. (2022). Sex Differences in Conduct and Emotional Outcomes for Young People with Hyperactive/Inattentive Traits and Social Communication Difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age: A Growth Curve Analysis. Psychological Medicine.

Blackmore CE, Woodhouse EL, Gillan N, et al. Adults with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system: An investigation of prevalence of contact with the criminal justice system, risk factors and sex differences in a specialist assessment service. Autism. March 2022.

Zhang, A. X., Liang, H., McEwen, F. S., Tye, C., Woodhouse, E., Underwood, L., … & Bolton, P. F. (2022). Perinatal adversities in tuberous sclerosis complex: determinants and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology.

Shephard, E., McEwen, F. S., Earnest, T., Friedrich, N., Mörtl, I., Liang, H., Woodhouse, E.,… & TS2000 Study Team. (2022). Oscillatory neural network alterations in young people with tuberous sclerosis complex and associations with co-occurring symptoms of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Cortex146, 50-65.

Colvert E, Simonoff E, Capp SJ, Ronald A, Bolton P, Happé F. (2022). Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mental Health Problems: Patterns of Difficulties and Longitudinal Trajectories in a Population-Based Twin Sample. J Autism Dev Disord. 52(3):1077-1091.

Milner, V., Mandy, W., Happe, F., & Colvert, E. (2022). Sex differences in predictors and outcomes of camouflaging: Comparing diagnosed autistic, high autistic trait and low autistic trait young adults. Autism


Watson, L., Hanna, P., & Jones, C.J. (2021). A systematic review of the experience of being a sibling of a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 26(3), 734-749.

McEwen, F., Tye, C., Liang, H., Woodhouse, E., Underwood, L., Shephard, E., … & Bolton, P. F. (2021). Risk pathways to autism in a cohort of children and adolescents with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Hollingdale, J., Adamo, N. & Tierney, K. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 for people living and working with ADHD: A brief review of the literature. AIMS Public Health, 8(4), 581-597.

Gómez-Vallejo, S., Leoni, M., Ronald, A., Colvert, E., Happé, F., & Bolton, P. (2021). Autism spectrum disorder and obstetric optimality: a twin study and meta-analysis of sibling studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines62(11), 1353-1362.

Oakley, B. F., Tillmann, J., Ahmad, J., Crawley, D., San José Cáceres, A., Holt, R., Charman, T., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., & Simonoff, E. (2021). How do core autism traits and associated symptoms relate to quality of life? Findings from the Longitudinal European Autism Project. Autism, 25(2), 389-404.


Crawley, D., Zhang, L., Jones, E. J. H., Ahmad, J., Oakley, B., San Jose Caceres, A., Charman, T., Buitelaar, J. K., Murphy, D. G. M., Chatham, C., den Ouden, H., & Loth, E. (2020). Modeling flexible behavior in childhood to adulthood shows age-dependent learning mechanisms and less optimal learning in autism in each age group. PLoS Biol, 18(10), e3000908.

Oakley, B. F. M., Jones, E. J. H., Crawley, D., Charman, T., Buitelaar, J., Tillmann, J., Murphy, D. G., & Loth, E. (2020). Alexithymia in autism: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with social-communication difficulties, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychol Med, 1-13.

Sainz-Fuertes, R….Hollingdale, J., et al. (2020) COVID-19 and mental health: A review and the role of telehealth and virtual reality. Digital Medicine, 6(2), 53-66.

Lockwood Estrin, G., Milner, V., Spain, D., Happé, F., & Colvert, E. (2020). Barriers to Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis for Young Women and Girls: a Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders8(4).

Hobson, H., Westwood, H., Conway, J., McEwen, F. S., Colvert, E., Catmur, C., Bird, G., & Happé, F. (2020). Alexithymia and autism diagnostic assessments: Evidence from twins at genetic risk of autism and adults with anorexia nervosa. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders73,

Earnest, T., Shephard, E., Tye, C., McEwen, F., Woodhouse, E., Liang, H., … & Bolton, P. F. (2020). Actigraph-Measured Movement Correlates of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Young People with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) with and without Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Brain Sciences10(8), 491.

Spain, D & McCarthy, J. (2020).  Personality Disorder, Dr Cornelia Carey, Emma Woodhouse, Dr Quinton Deeley. In Chaplin, E (Eds.), A Clinician’s Guide to Mental Health Conditions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Assessment and Interventions (pp. 230-248).  Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Tillmann, J., Uljarevic, M., Crawley, D. et al. (2020) Dissecting the phenotypic heterogeneity in sensory features in autism spectrum disorder: a factor mixture modelling approach. Molecular Autism 11, 67.

Tye, C., Mcewen, F. S., Liang, H., Underwood, L., Woodhouse, E., Barker, E. D., … & Higgins, N. (2020). Long‐term cognitive outcomes in tuberous sclerosis complex. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology62(3), 322-329.

Young, S., Adamo, N., Ásgeirsdóttir, B. B., Branney, P., Beckett, M., Colley, W., Cubbin, S., Deeley, Q., Farrag, E., Gudjonsson, G., Hill, P., Hollingdale, J., Kilic, O., Lloyd, T., Mason, P., Paliokosta, E., Perecherla, S., Sedgwick, J., Skirrow, C., Tierney, K., van Rensburg, K. & Woodhouse, E. (2020). Females with ADHD: An expert consensus statement taking a lifespan approach providing guidance for the identification and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in girls and women. BMC psychiatry20(1), 1-27.

Young, S., Hollingdale, J., Absoud, M., Bolton, P., Branney, P., Colley, W., Craze, E., Dave, M., Deeley, Q., Farrag, E., Gudjonsson, G., Hill, P., Liang, H., Murphy, C., Mackintosh, P., Murin, M., O’Regan, F., Ougrin, D., Rios, P., Stover, N., Taylor, E. & Woodhouse, E.  (2020). Guidance for identification and treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder based upon expert consensus. BMC Medicine18, 1-29.

Young, S., & Woodhouse, E. (2020). Assessment and treatment of substance use in adults with ADHD: a psychological approach. Journal of Neural Transmission, 1-10.


Milner, V. L., McIntosh , H., Colvert, E., & Happe, F. (2019). A Qualitative Exploration of the Female Experience of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders49(6), 2389-2402.

Crawley, D., Zhang, L., Jones, E. J., Ahmad, J., Caceres, A. S. J., Oakley, B., … & den Ouden, H. (2019). Modeling cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorder and typical development reveals comparable developmental shifts in learning mechanisms.

Hollingdale, J. Woodhouse, E., Young, S., Fridman, A., & Mandy, W. (2019). Autistic spectrum disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytical review. Psychological Medicine, 1-14.

Tillmann, J., San José Cáceres, A., Chatham, C.H., Crawley, D., Holt, R., Oakley, B., Banaschewski, T., Baron‐Cohen, S., Bölte, S., Buitelaar, J.K., Durston, S., Ham, L., Loth, E., Simonoff, E., Spooren, W., Murphy, D.G., Charman, T. and (2019), Investigating the factors underlying adaptive functioning in autism in the EU‐AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project. Autism Research, 12: 645-657.


Young, S., Gudjonsson, G., Chitsabesan, P., Colley, B., Farrag, E., Forrester, A., Hollingdale, J., Kim, K., Lewis, A., Maginn, S. and Mason, P., Ryan, S., Smith, J., Woodhouse, E., & Asherson, P. (2018). Identification and treatment of offenders with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the prison population: a practical approach based upon expert consensus. BMC psychiatry18(1), p.281.

Livingston, L. A., Colvert, E., Social Relationships Study Team, Bolton, P., & Happe, F. (2018). Good social skills despite poor theory of mind: Exploring compensation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry60(1), 102-110.


Charman, T., Loth, E., Tillmann, J., Crawley, D., Wooldridge, C., Goyard, D., Ahmad, J., Auyeung, B., Ambrosino, S., Banaschewski, T. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2017). The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP): clinical characterisation. Molecular autism8(1), p.27.


Ashwood, K. L., Gillan, N., Horder, J., Hayward, H., Woodhouse, E., McEwen, F. S., Findon, J., Eklund, H., Spain, D., Wilson, C. E., Cadman, T, Young, S., Stoencheva, V., Murphy, C. M., Robertson, D., Charman, T., Bolton, P., Glaser, K., Asherson, P., Simonoff, E. & Murphy, D. G. (2016). Predicting the diagnosis of autism in adults using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire. Psychological medicine46(12), 2595-2604.

Findon, J., Cadman, T., Stewart, C. S., Woodhouse, E., Eklund, H., Hayward, H., De Le Harpe Golden, D., Chaplin, E., Glaser, K., Simonoff, E. Murphy, D., Bolton, P. F. & McEwen, F. S. (2016). Screening for co‐occurring conditions in adults with autism spectrum disorder using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A pilot study. Autism Research9(12), 1353-1363.

Galanopoulos, A., Robertson, D., & Woodhouse, E. (2016). The assessment of autism spectrum disorders in adults. Advances in Autism2(1), 31-40.

McEwen, F. S., Stewart, C. S., Colvert, E., Woodhouse, E., Curran, S., Gillan, N., Hallett, V., Lietz, S., Garnett, T., Ronald, A., Murphy, D., Happé, F. & Bolton, P. (2016). Diagnosing autism spectrum disorder in community settings using the Development and Well‐Being Assessment: validation in a UK population‐based twin sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry57(2), 161-170.

Tick, B., Colvert, E., McEwen, F., Stewart, C., Woodhouse, E., Gillan, N., Hallett, V., Lietz, S., Garnett, T., Simonoff, E., Ronald, A., Bolton, P., Happé, F. & Rijsdijk, F. (2016). Autism Spectrum Disorders and other mental health problems: Exploring etiological overlaps and phenotypic causal associations. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry55(2), 106-113.

Wilson, C. E., Murphy, C. M., McAlonan, G., Robertson, D. M., Spain, D., Hayward, H., Woodhouse, E., Deeley, P. Q., Gillan, N., Ohlsen, J. C., Zinkstok, J., Stoencheva, V., Faulkner, J., Yildiran, H., Bell, V., Hammond, N., Craig, M. C. & Murphy, D. G. (2016). Does sex influence the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder in adults? Autism20(7), 808-819.

Young, S., Absoud, M., Blackburn, C., Branney, P., Colley, B., Farrag, E., Fleisher, S., Gregory, G., Gudjonsson, G. H., Kim, K., O’Malley, K. D., Plant, M., Rodriguez, A., Ozer, S., Takon, I., Woodhouse, E. & Mukherjee, R. (2016). Guidelines for identification and treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and associated fetal alcohol spectrum disorders based upon expert consensus. BMC psychiatry16(1), 324.


Brunsdon, V. E., Colvert, E., Ames, C., Garnett, T., Gillan, N., Hallett, V., Lietz, S., Woodhouse, E., Bolton, P. & Happé, F. (2015). Exploring the cognitive features in children with autism spectrum disorder, their co‐twins, and typically developing children within a population‐based sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry56(8), 893-902.

Colvert, E., Tick, B., McEwen, F., Stewart, C., Curran, S. R., Woodhouse, E., Gillan, N., Hallett, V., Lietz, S., Garnett, T., Ronald, A., Plomin, R., Rijsdijk, F., Happé, F. & Bolton, P. (2015). Heritability of autism spectrum disorder in a UK population-based twin sample. JAMA psychiatry72(5), 415-423.

Greitemeyer, T., Hollingdale, J., & Traut-Mattausch, E. (2015). Changing the track in music and misogyny: Listening to music with pro-equality lyrics improves attitudes and behavior toward women. Psychology of Popular Media Culture4(1), 56.

McEwen, F. S., Tye, C., Liang, H., Woodhouse, E., Underwood, L., Rogers, H., Oluwo, F., Halpin, C., Wulandari, S. & Bolton, P. F. (2015). Psychiatric outcomes in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the TS2000 Cohort Study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research59(9), 795.

Young, S., Gudjonsson, G., O’Rourke, L., Woodhouse, E., Ashwood, K., Murphy, D., & Asherson, P. (2015). Attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders. Psychiatry research230(2), 387-393.


Hollingdale, J., & Greitemeyer, T. (2014). The effect of online violent video games on levels of aggression. PLoS one9(11).

Hollingdale, J.Woodhouse, E., Asherson, P., Gudjonsson, G. H., & Young, S. (2014). A Pilot Study Examining ADHD and Behavioural Disturbance in Female Mentally Disordered Offenders. AIMS Public Health, 1(2), 100-108.


Hallett, V., Ronald, A., Colvert, E., Ames, C., Woodhouse, E., Lietz, S., Garnett, T., Gillan, N., Rijsdijk, F., Scahill, L., Bolton, P. & Happé, F. (2013). Exploring anxiety symptoms in a large‐scale twin study of children with autism spectrum disorders, their co‐twins and controls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry54(11), 1176-1185.


Hollingdale, J. & Greitemeyer, T. (2012). The Changing Face of Aggression: The Effect of Personalized Avatars in a Violent Video Game on Levels of Aggressive Behaviour. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.